wersja polska
dr hab. Agnieszka Herman
Instytut Oceanografii
Uniwersytet Gdański
Al. Piłsudskiego 46, 81-378 Gdynia
Email: oceagah@ug.edu.pl
Tel: +48 (0)58 5236887
Fax: +48 (0)58 5236678
Curriculum Vitae
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Winter semester 2017/2018:


Lectures

  1. Introduction. Structure and composition of the atmosphere. Radiation. Thermal processes in the atmosphere.
    • Main concepts. Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric sciences.
    • Composition of the atmosphere; homosphere and heterosphere; ozonosphere. Vertical structure of the atmosphere; troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere.
    • Solar radiation. Global energy balance. Stefan-Boltzmann law and Wien's law. Radiation processes in the atmosphere. Heat exchange between the atmosphere and lands/oceans.
    • Greenhouse effect – mechanisms.
  2. Dynamic processes in the atmosphere.
    • Atmospheric pressure. Vertical pressure variations.
    • Horizontal changes of atmospheric pressure and temperature. Low pressure and high pressure systems.
    • Atmospheric pressure and wind. Geostrophic wind. Gradient wind. Thermal wind and geostrophic temperature advection.
  3. Water in the atmosphere. Vertical stability of the atmosphere.
    • Vertical stability of dry atmosphere. Dry-adiabatic gradient. Temperature inversion. Convection level.
    • Water vapour in the atmosphere. Phase transitions. Dew point.
    • Humidity: definitions and units.
    • Thermodynamic processes in moist air. Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
    • Vertical stability of moist air. Moist-adiabatic processes. Condensation level.
  4. Clouds and precipitation. Thunderstorms.
    • Formation of clouds. Condensation, growth of water droplets/ice crystals in clouds.
    • Classification of clouds, their composition and structure. Fog and mist.
    • Formation and types of precipitation.
    • Thunderstorms. Types of thunderstorms. Electricity of the atmosphere.
  5. Global weather.
    • Global atmospheric circulation.
    • Air masses. Fronts. Polar front. Jet stream. Planetary Rossby waves. (Anti-)cyclogenesis.
    • Average distribution and seasonal variability of wind, atmospheric pressure and temperature on Earth. Trade wind circulation. Circulation of the midlatitudes. Polar circulation.
    • North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). El Niño, index ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation).
  6. Mid-latitude weather.
    • Formation, evolution and structure of mid-latitude low pressure systems. The role of the polar front in czclogenesis.
    • Typical weather patterns in low pressure systems.
    • Typical weather patterns in high pressure systems.
    • Types of atmospheric fronts. Dynamics of frontal zones. Occlusion. Clouds and precipitation in low- and high-pressure systems and in frontal zones.
  7. Tropical weather.
    • Formation, evolution and structure of tropical low pressure systems.
    • Easterly waves, tropical depressions, tropical storms, hurricanes.
    • Regions of hurricane formation. Oceans as a source of energy for hurricanes. Three-dimensional hurricane structure.
    • Hurricanes in satellite imagery and synoptic charts.
    • The role of hurricanes in ocean mixing and oceanic heat transport. Hurricanes and climate.

Exercises